Community-managed forests can secure greater sustainability of forests and more equitable livelihood outcomes for stakeholders than centralized forest management, and case studies from around the world have provided evidence of factors that can lead to such successful outcomes. At the same time, there are many instances where community forestry initiatives have failed to deliver improvements in forest condition and livelihoods. There remains an inadequate understanding of which factors lead to which outcomes in which contexts, and of whether environmental and socio-economic outcomes are synergistic or trade-offs. To address this knowledge gap, we are conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on community-managed forests to identify the biophysical, institutional, and socioeconomic characteristics associated with improved environmental and livelihood outcomes, globally and regionally. Project partners include CIFOR and RECOFTC.